Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the collective name of two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, in Germany. They were located in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and the two were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. The Duchy came to an end in 1918 with the other German monarchies, and the Free State of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was established. This was merged into the new state of Thuringia two years later.
The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha also may refer to the family of the ruling House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which played many varied roles in nineteenth and twentieth-century European dynastic and political history.
The two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, were among the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty. The duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originated as the personal union of these two duchies in 1826, after the death of the last Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, who died without male heirs. His Wettin relations repartitioned his lands. The former husband of Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the only niece of the last duke, was Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He received Gotha and changed his title to Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha although, technically, the two duchies remained as separate duchies.
Ernst I died in 1844. His elder son and successor, Ernst II, ruled until his own death in 1893. As he died childless, the throne of the duchies would have passed to the male descendants of Ernst’s late brother Albert, the Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, the constitutions of both duchies excluded the British heir apparent from the ducal thrones if there were other eligible male heirs,  although Albert Edward, Prince of Wales had already renounced his claim to the ducal throne in favour of his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
Alfred’s only son, also named Alfred, committed suicide in 1899, so when Duke Alfred died in 1900, he was succeeded by his nephew the Duke of Albany, the sixteen-year-old son of Queen Victoria’s youngest son, Leopold. Alfred’s next brother Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and his son Prince Arthur of Connaught having renounced the succession. Reigning as Duke Carl Eduard, or Charles Edward, under the regency of the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg until he came of age in 1905, the new duke also continued to use his British title, Duke of Albany. As a result of Charles Edward fighting for Germany against the British in the First World War, he was stripped of his British titles in 1919.
Charles Edward reigned until November 18, 1918 during the German Revolution, when the Workers’ and Soldiers’ Council of Gotha deposed him. The two Duchies, now without a common ruler, became separate states until shortly thereafter, when they ceased to exist. Saxe-Coburg became a part of Bavaria and Saxe-Gotha merged with other small states in 1920 to form the new state of Thuringia in the Weimar Republic.